Thứ Sáu, Tháng Chín 29, 2023
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HomeSober livingModerate Alcohol Consumption Linked With High Blood Pressure American College of Cardiology

Moderate Alcohol Consumption Linked With High Blood Pressure American College of Cardiology

high blood pressure alchol

Most of the evidence from this review is relevant to healthy males, as these trials included small numbers of women (126 females compared to 638 males). In conclusion, in this randomized clinical trial in nondependent moderate to heavy drinkers, the difference in the reduction in BP with an intervention to lower alcohol intake compared with eco sober house ma a control group was small and not significant. Greater differences in alcohol reduction may have resulted in greater differences in BP reduction. The PATHS results are consistent with the antihypertensive effect seen in well-controlled short-term studies that observed a greater difference in alcohol intake between randomized groups.

Similarly, when blood pressure increases, these receptors increase the stretching of the blood vessel walls in order to decrease blood pressure. Alcohol increases blood levels of the hormone renin, which causes the blood vessels to constrict. The American College of Cardiology envisions a world where innovation and knowledge optimize cardiovascular care and outcomes.

Koenig 1997 published data only

It is recommended that there should be at least 10 studies reporting each of the subgroups in question. Among the 32 included studies, only four studies included hypertensive participants (Kawano 1992; Kawano 2000; Kojima 1993; Foppa 2002). So, it was not appropriate to conduct a separate meta‐analysis based on that population. We classified six studies as having low risk of performance bias (Dai 2002; Narkiewicz 2000; Nishiwaki 2017; Potter 1986; Rosito 1999; Van De Borne 1997). In this study, all test drinks were poured into paper cups to achieve blinding of participants. We contacted the author of Rosito 1999 to request additional information regarding the method of blinding used.

  • When it comes to diagnosis, it’s sometimes difficult to pinpoint the underlying cause of high blood pressure.
  • Researchers have also suggested that red wine, in particular, might protect the heart, thanks to the antioxidants it contains.
  • Intermediate (7 to 12 hours) and late (after 13 hours) effects of the medium dose of alcohol on HR were based on only four trials and were not statistically different compared to placebo.
  • Women, older people, and those with smaller bodies should be especially careful.

Changes in blood pressure and heart rate after alcohol consumption were not the primary outcomes of interest in most of the included studies. We do not think participants were anticipating any significant influence on blood pressure or heart rate after drinking. Alcohol has been a part of almost every human culture for a very long time (McGovern 2009). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), around 2.3 billion people globally drink alcohol, and most of them are from the European region. On average, drinkers consume 32.8 grams of pure alcohol per day, and beer (34.3%) is the most consumed alcoholic beverage (WHO 2018).

What does the study show?

There is some evidence that moderate amounts of alcohol might help to slightly raise levels of “good” HDL cholesterol. Researchers have also suggested that red wine, in particular, might protect the heart, thanks to the antioxidants it contains. For one, it damages your arteries, making them less elastic, which in turn lowers the amount of blood and oxygen that flows to your heart. This can lead to heart disease, which can ultimately result in a heart attack or heart failure.

high blood pressure alchol

This is known to provide a good approximation of the SD of change in BP so is unlikely to lead to bias. Also, only 10 out of 32 studies reported changes in MAP after alcohol consumption along with SE/SD (Buckman 2015; Dumont 2010; Foppa 2002; Karatzi 2005; Karatzi 2013; Kojima 1993; Maufrais 2017; Maule 1993; Narkiewicz 2000; Van De Borne 1997). So, we had to calculate missing MAP values from reported SBP and DBP values using the formula mentioned in the protocol and we imputed the SE/SD for those. Hence, we conducted additional analyses to see if the very high dose of alcohol (≥ 60 g or ≥ 1 g/kg) had any dose‐related effects compared to lower high doses of alcohol (31 to 59 g of alcohol) (see Table 9). Results suggest that the decrease in BP with very high doses of alcohol is greater compared to lower high doses of alcohol.

Review Manager (RevMan) [Computer program]

After ≥ 13 hours of consumption, SBP and DBP were raised; the certainty of evidence was low and medium, respectively. Ratings of the certainty of evidence ranged from moderate to low in this review, which suggests that the effect estimates of alcohol might be slightly different than the true effects. For high doses of alcohol, we found moderate‐certainty evidence showing a decrease in SBP and low‐certainty evidence suggesting a decrease in DBP within the first six hours and 7 to 12 hours after consumption. Moderate‐certainty evidence shows that SBP and DBP rise between 13 and 24 hours after alcohol ingestion. Much of the current literature on alcohol does not mention the hypotensive effect of alcohol or the magnitude of change in BP or HR after alcohol consumption. This review will be useful for social and regular drinkers to appreciate the risks of low blood pressure within the first 12 hours after drinking.

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The results from the Prevention and Treatment of Hypertension Study (PATHS) do not provide strong support for reducing alcohol consumption in nondependent moderate drinkers as a sole method for the prevention or treatment of hypertension. We planned on conducting sensitivity analyses on studies based on their level of risk of bias (high‐risk studies versus low‐risk studies). Most of the included studies had similar risk of bias across all domains except for performance bias and detection bias, for which risk arises from blinding of participants, personnel, and outcome assessors. So, we decided to conduct a sensitivity analysis of the included studies based on the blinding condition (Table 7).

Other risks of alcohol use

Men are three times more frequent drinkers and intake about 80% more ethanol than women. Your age and other risk factors linked to heart and blood pressure health will ultimately aid your decision with your doctor about drinking. But don’t expect any “all clears” for anything beyond light-moderate drinking. Light-moderate drinking (defined as up to two drinks a day for men, one for women) has shown a subtle drop in blood pressure in some cases. In small amounts, it has been shown to lower blood pressure by 2 to 4 mm Hg (millimeters of mercury) in women. Most experts agree, though, that does not show a significant enough drop to advise drinking for an entire population.

high blood pressure alchol

For times greater than 13 hours, high doses of alcohol consumption increased blood pressure. Low, moderate, and high alcohol consumption increased heart rate within the first six hours. High alcohol consumption also increased heart rate from 7 to 12 hours and after 13 hours.

Fazio 2001 published data only

In addition, 2 subjects from the intervention and 1 from the control groups had transient ischemic attacks. Overall, cardiovascular events occurred in 18 intervention and 17 control participants. Acute myocardial infarction was the cause of 4 deaths in the intervention group and 2 deaths in the control group; another death in the control group was from possible coronary heart disease. One death in the intervention group was the result of a cerebral hemorrhage. Average blood pressure at each period by randomized group for all participants (top) and for participants in the hypertensive stratum (bottom).

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Because women could be affected differently by alcohol than men, future RCTs in women are needed. If future RCTs include both men and women, it is important that their blood pressure and heart rate readings are reported separately. Although eligible studies included East Asian, Latino, and Caucasian populations, they lacked African, South Asian, and Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander representation. Most of the hypertensive participants in the included studies were Japanese, so it is unclear if the difference in blood pressure between alcohol and placebo groups was due to the presence of genetic variants or the presence of hypertension. Large RCTs including both hypertensive and normotensive participants with various ethnic backgrounds are required to understand the effects of alcohol on blood pressure and heart rate based on ethnicity and the presence of hypertension. More RCTs are needed to study the effects of low‐dose alcohol to better delineate the dose‐response effects of alcohol on BP and heart rate.

Brainin 2016 published data only

Medical professionals know that there is a link between alcohol abuse and high blood pressure. In about 16% of people with hypertension, alcohol consumption is a contributing factor. People who drink heavily nearly always have high blood pressure, and this can lead to other side effects, like fatty liver disease and heart disease.

Although there is no clear evidence of an increased risk of blood pressure complications at high altitudes, there is marked interindividual variability in blood pressure responses at altitudes. So, as a result, people with uncontrolled blood pressure or very labile hypertension should monitor their blood pressure upon ascent to high altitude. Moreover, not only does drinking cause elevated blood pressure, but in excess, it can directly enhance the damage caused to cardiac and renal tissues by hypertension. Some scientists suggest a J-shaped curve between alcohol and CVD, but this remains a hypothesis. In fact, over the long term, Blacks appear more prone to BP elevations than Whites or Asians.

  • We identified Stott 1987 and Barden 2013 from Analysis 3.1 and Analysis 3.2 as having a considerably lower standard error (SE) of the mean difference (MD) compared to the other included studies.
  • For comparison purposes, participants who had received medical information that at some point in their life they had hypertension were excluded.
  • Alcohol can cause changes in the function of the kidneys and make them less able to filter your blood.
  • A drink is 12 ounces (355 milliliters) of beer, 5 ounces (148 milliliters) of wine or 1.5 ounces (44 milliliters) of 80-proof distilled spirits.

We observed a greater reduction in blood pressure after a moderate dose of alcohol consumption for the unblinded studies, which was probably due to the presence of a heterogeneous population. For high‐dose alcohol studies, we did not find any significant difference between blinded and unblinded studies. The dose of alcohol had to be reported by study authors for inclusion in the systematic review.



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